Implicit Association Test) to assess unconscious bias has been developed and rigorously tested.
Here’s what we know:
- Unconscious biases develop at an early age: biases emerge during middle childhood and appear to develop across childhood (Dore, 2014).
- Unconscious biases have real world effects on behavior (Dasgupta, 2004).
- Unconscious biases are malleable-one can take steps to minimize the impact of unconscious bias (Dasgupta, 2013; Dasgupta & Greenwald, 2013).
- Fictitious resumes with White-sounding names sent to help-wanted ads were more likely to receive callbacks for interviews compared to resumes with African-American sounding names. Resumes with White-sounding names received 50% more callbacks for interviews (Bertrand & Mullainathan, 2004).
- Science faculty rated male applicants for a laboratory manager position as significantly more competent and hireable than female applicants. Faculty also selected a higher starting salary and offered more career mentoring to the male applicant (Moss-Racusin et al, 2012).
- Among mentored career K08 or K23 recipients – mean salary of female researchers was about $31,000 less than males (Jagsi et al., 2013).
- Implicit bias among health care professionals can influence their behaviors and judgments (Stone & Moskowitz, 2011).
- Since 1997, more than 30 studies have been published relevant to unconscious bias and clinical decision-making. Racial bias is prevalent among healthcare providers and it appears that race influences medical decision making of healthcare providers (Paradies, 2013).